Partisipasi Politik Amerika Serikat

By : Muhammad Choirul Rosiqin, International Relations Student @University of Muhammadiyah Malang

Partisipasi Politik adalah bentuk dari keikutsertaan warga negara dalam aktifitas politik masyarakat. Partisipasi politik di Amerika berbeda dengan partisipasi politik di negara-negara demokrasi baru. Partisipasi politik di Amerika memiliki jenis-jenis yang beragam yang memungkinkan masyarakat untuk memilih  jenis partisipasi yang paling sesuai dengan kehendak mereka.

Definisi Partisipasi Politik

No definition is universally accepted (see Uhlaner 2001). What many definitions share, however, is the limitation to activities that are addressed toward (influencing) the “state” (the political authority that exercises monopoly control over the means of coercion, whether in a democratic or non-democratic way).

imagesHuntington & Nelson (1976: 3): “By political participation we mean activity by private citizens designed to influence government decision-making.”

Verba et al. (1995: 38): “By political participation we refer simply to activity that has the intent or effect of influencing government action – either directly by affecting the making or implementation of public policy or indirectly by influencing the selection of people who make those policies.”

Distinctions:

  1. The two books just mentioned take opposite views with respect to whether only voluntary participation should be included in a definition of political participation (Verba et al.) or whether involuntary participation belongs there as well (Huntington & Nelson).
  2. A further distinction between different definitions is whether they cover only legal activities (Verba & Nye 1972) or whether illegal activities as well.

Chapter 18 focuses on legal and on voluntary political participation. Citizens in a democratic setting may participate in three different ways:

1) People can get involved in a public arena to advertise and communicate demands to anyone willing to listen. Example: joining a demonstration.

2) People may target policy-makers in legislatures or the executive branch as addresses of their communications. Example: signing a petition.

3) People may get involved in the selection process of those who aspire to legislative or executive office. Examples: voting for a party or running for office.

Bentuk-Bentuk Partisipasi Politik

Partisipasi  politik  yang  dapat dilakukan oleh warga Negara bermacam-macam bentuknya, yakni berupa voting, campaign activity, particularized contacting, cooperative  activity,  unconventional participation, dan non-participation. (Calvin Mackanzie, 1986: 47-52)

Bentuk-bentuk partisipasi politik di Amerika Serikat, antara lain:

  1. Memberikan Suara (Voting)

Memberikan suara adalah bentuk partisipasi yang paling umum dan sangat terkenal. Amerika mungkin hanya satu-satunya negara di dunia yang paling banyak melakukan kegiatan pemberian suara. Jika dinegara lain pemilihan hanya dilakukan sekali hingga dua kali dalam empat tahun. Di Amerika frekuensi tersebut bisa dua hingga tiga kali.

  1. Ikut Berkampanye (Campaign Activity)

Adalah bentuk lain dari partisipasi politik di Amerika. Berkampanye sangat berbeda dengan memberikan suara dalam pemilihan. Dalam kegiatan kampanye seseorang dituntut untuk jauh lebih aktif. Para aktifis kampanye menyiapkan serangkaian kegiatan kampanye dari mulai penyebaran pamflet, pemasangan poster, spanduk, stiker untuk gedung dan bumper mobil, hingga menyiapkan tempat pemungutan suara.

  1. Kegiatan Komunitas

Kegiatan komunitas muncul sebagai alternatif dari pemilihan yang sudah tentu hanya berlaku pada saat-saat tertentu. Meningkatnya kesadaran Amerika sejalan dengan meluasnya kesempatan pendidikan mereka membuat mereka merasa perlu untuk melakukan kegiatan yang intensif dalam partisipasi politik. Karena pemilihan terbatas oleh waktu, mereka menemukan kegiatan komunitas sebagai bentuk partisipasi yang luwes.

  1. Mengontak Pejabat (Particularized Contacting)

Pertemuan langsung antara rakyat dengan para wakil rakyat merupakan kegiatan yang umum terjadi di Amerika. Para pejabat pemerintah pada umumnya menyadari arti pentingnya pelayanan masyarakat dalam arti sesungguhnya. Mereka menyadari ini sebagai upaya menegakan demokrasi. Hubungan rakyat dan wakilnya di kongres sangat dekat, terbukti dengan tingginya intensitas hubungan yang dilakukan rakyat amerika dengan para wakil mereka di kongres.

  1. Protes sebagai Bentuk Partisipasi

Ketidakpuasan sering dilampiaskan dalam bentuk protes. Protes di Amerika cenderung dilakukan secara damai. Protes lebih dianggap sebagai cara penyamaian pendapat atau partisipasi politik secara langsung dengan tekanan, karena semua model hubungan yang mapan seperti pertemuan atau rundingan tidak mencapai hasil.

Reference:


Oxford University Press, http://global.oup.com/uk/orc/politics/comparative/caramani2e/01student/additional/ch18/01/

Halifa Haqqi, ANALISA PARTISIPASI POLITIK DI AMERIKA SERIKAT, http://ejournal.unisri.ac.id/index.php/Transformasi/article/download/40/13

Uhlaner, C. J. (2001) ‘Political Participation’, in N. J. Smelser and P. B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social Behavioral Sciences (Amsterdam: Elsevier).

Huntington, S. P. and Nelson, J. M. (1976) No Easy Choice: Political Participation in Developing Countries (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).

Verba, S. Schlozman, K. L., and Brady, H. (1995) Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics (Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press).

Verba, S. and Nie, N. H. (1972) Participation in America (New York: Harper & Row).

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About Muhammad Choirul Rosiqin

I was born in Eastern Probolinggo, East Java, in 1994. I'm student of International Relations @University of Muhammadiyah Malang
This entry was posted in HI Kawasan AS. Bookmark the permalink.

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