Prinsip-prinsip Dasar Pemerintahan Amerika Serikat

By : Muhammad Choirul Rosiqin, International Relations Student @University of Muhammadiyah Malang

Sejarah merupakan inspirasi bagi penyusunan konstitusi itu sendiri, sedangkan konstitusi memberikan landasan berpijak penyelenggaraan pemerintahan Amerika. Although the United States Constitution is a 200 year old document, it doesn’t mean that it’s not useful in today’s century. It still remains an important and very well alive document. The Constitution is the “supreme law of the land” – the United States.sistem-pemerintahan-amerika-serikat

The Constitution is built upon the following six basic principles:

  1. Popular Sovereignty
  2. Limited Government
  3. Separation of Powers
  4. Checks and Balances
  5. Judicial Review
  6. Federalism

Adapun prinsip-prinsip dasar pemerintahan Amerika Serikat, yaitu:

1. Pemerintahan oleh Rakyat (Popular Sovereignty)

This principle states that the source of governmental power lies with the people. This belief stems from the concept of the social contract and the idea that government should be for the benefit of its citizens. If the government is not protecting the people, it should be dissolved.

Maksud dari pemerintahan oleh rakyat adalah bahwa anggota dewan perwakilan rakyat atau di Amerika dikenal dengan House of Representatives yang sering disebut dengan House, dipilih oleh rakyat Amerika disetiap negara-negara bagiannya setiap 2 tahun sekali. Aturan konstitusi ini menekankan bahwa hanya anggota house yang perlu dipilih oleh rakyat, sedangkan jabatan yang lain diangkat secara langsung. Adapun pula dalam pemilihan presiden ada 2 tahap yaitu: pertama, adalah tahap population votes yaitu pemilihan yang dilakukan oleh rakyat, dan yang kedua adalah presidensial electors yaitu pemilihan yang dilakukan para anggota kongres. Dari kedua tahapan tersebut seorang calon presiden walaupun memenangkan jumlah perolehan suara ditahap awal, tetapi ditahap kedua ternyata kalabh dari lawannya, maka calon presiden tersebutpun dinyatakan kalah.

2. Pemerintahan terbatas (Limited Government)

Since the people give government its power, government itself is limited to the power given to it by them. In other words, the US government does not derive its power from itself. It must follow its own laws and it can only act using powers given to it by the people.

Pemerintahan AS mencerminkan atas pemerintahan legislative yang lebih aktif berpengaruh dari pada pemerintahan eksekutif. Hal ini terlihat dengan adanya pembatasan oleh ketentuan-ketentuan yang tertera dalam konstitusi. Dimana pembatasan ini berbentuk atas kekuasaan kongres untuk menarik pajak, mengatur UU, dan menyatakan perang, yang dalam aktualisasinya memperlihatkan bahwa hal tersebut lebih mencerminkan pelaksanaan UU yang seharusnya ada ditangan eksekutif tetapi karena konstitusi telah menyatakan lain, maka eksekutif dengan sendirinya menjadi terbatas.

3. Pemisahan Kekuasaan (Separation of Powers)

As stated previously, the US Government is divided into three branches so that no one branch has all the power. Each branch has its own purpose: to make the laws, execute the laws, and interpret the laws.

Dalam pemerintahan AS dikenbal dengan trias politika yaitu pemisahan 3 kekuasaan antara eksekutif, legislatif, yudikatif. Kekuasaan legislative diserahkan pada kongres dan tercantum pada pasal I. Sementara kekuasaan eksekutif diserahkan sepenuhnya kepada presiden dan tercantum pada pasal II. Serta kekuasaan yudikatif dijalankan oleh mahkamah agung yang tercantum pada pasal III.

4. Checks and Balance

In order to further protect the citizens, the constitution set up a system of checks and balances. Basically, each branch of government has a certain number of checks it can use to ensure the other branches do not become too powerful. For example, the president can veto legislation, the Supreme Court can declare acts of Congress unconstitutional, and the Senate must approve treaties and presidential appointments.

Dari pemisahan kekuasaan yang telah dipaparkan sebelumnya, dalam pelaksanaan kekuasaan tersebut dalam prakteknya diperlukannya sistem checks and balance yang dapat dipahami sebagai konteks berbagi kekuasaan demi memperkecil peluang munculnya kekuasaan otoriter yang sulit dikontrol.

For example, Congress has the power to make a law, but the President can veto it, or reject it. And in the case of a veto, Congress may override that veto with a 2/3 vote. Take another example, the President has the power to appoint federal judges, but the Senate must approve that appointment with a majority vote. The system of checks and balances ties all three branches together.

Overall, the system of checks and balances has worked very well. You have the Framers to thank for that. It really has prevented an unjust combination of the majority.

5. Sistem Perwakilan (Judicial Review)

This is a power that allows the Supreme Court to decide whether acts and laws are unconstitutional. This was established with Marbury v. Madison in 1803.

Sistem perwakilan merupakan inti dari bentuk pemerintahan AS. Dengan format anggota kongres yang terdiri dari anggota house dan senat merupakan representasi dari rakyat yang berada disetiap negara bagian AS. Sistem perwakilan ini menjadi wadah bagi wakil rakyat yang terpilih sebagai anggota kongres untuk berkumpul, berdebat, dan berkompromi untuk menghasilkan UU yang diperlukan oleh rakyat. Seperti yang dikemukakan sebelumnya bahwa perwakilan rakyat disetiap negara bagian terbagi atas 2 yaitu house yang merupakan perwakilan rakyat yang tergantung pada jumlah penduduk pada bagian negara tersebut, semakin banyak jumlah penduduknya maka akan semakin banyak pula perwakilan yang dapat dikirimkan sebagai anggota house dan sebaliknya. Adapun perwakilan rakyat disenat hanya berjumlah 2 bagi setiap negara bagian, dan tidak dipengaruhi oleh jumlah penduduknyab maupun luas wilayahnya. Hal ini demi menciptakan keseimbangan representasi bagi setiap negara bagian.

6. Federalisme (Federalism)

One of the most complicated foundations of the US is the principle of federalism. This is the idea that the central government does not control all the power in the nation. States also have powers reserved to them. This division of powers does overlap and sometimes leads to problems such as what happened with the response to Hurricane Katrina between the state and federal governments.

Federasi merupakan bentuk pembagian kekuasaan antara negara federal atau pusat dan negara bagian. Saat ini amerika terdiri dari 50 negara bagian. Dalam pembagian kekuasaan negara bagian cenderung lebih kuat, tetapi dengan perubahan internasional, secara bertahap kekuasaan kekuasaan pemerintahan federal bertambah. Dalam sistem federasi ini negara bagian berotonom dalam mengatur urusan mereka, sehingga tidak mustahil bahwa suatu keadaan diatur dengan ketentuan yang berbeda diantara satu negara bagian dengan negara bagian lainnya. Dewasa ini negara bagian mengatur sektor kegiatan utama seperti pendidikan, dan negara bagian pun membuat sendiri UU perkara pardata maupun pidananya.

Reference:

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About Muhammad Choirul Rosiqin

I was born in Eastern Probolinggo, East Java, in 1994. I'm student of International Relations @University of Muhammadiyah Malang
This entry was posted in HI Kawasan AS. Bookmark the permalink.

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