Realisme dalam HI
- Dasar Pemikiran
- Thucydides: hubungan antar-negara ialah kompetisi yang tidak dapat dihindari
Thucydides (460–411 B.C.E.) saw politics as involving moral questions. Most importantly, he asks whether relations among states to which power is crucial can also be guided by the norms of justice. His History of the Peloponnesian War is in fact neither a work of political philosophy nor a sustained theory of international relations.
International relations realists emphasize the constraints imposed on politics by the nature of human beings, whom they consider egoistic, and by the absence of international government. Together these factors contribute to a conflict-based paradigm of international relations, in which the key actors are states, in which power and security become the main issues, and in which there is little place for morality. The set of premises concerning state actors, egoism, anarchy, power, security, and morality that define the realist tradition are all present in Thucydides.
a. Human nature is a starting point for classical political realism.
b. Realists, and especially today’s neorealists, consider the absence of government, literally anarchy, to be the primary determinant of international political outcomes.
c. Insofar as realists envision the world of states as anarchic, they likewise view security as a central issue.
d. Realists are generally skeptical about the relevance of morality to international politics.
2. Machiavelli: penguasa negara harus berupaya mempertahankan kepentingan negaranya
In chapter XV of The Prince, Machiavelli announces that in departing from the teachings of earlier thinkers, he seeks “the effectual truth of the matter rather than the imagined one.” The “effectual truth” is for him the only truth worth seeking. It represents the sum of the practical conditions that he believes are required to make both the individual and the country prosperous and strong.
Machiavellianism is a radical type of political realism that is applied to both domestic and international affairs. It is a doctrine which denies the relevance of morality in politics, and claims that all means (moral and immoral) are justified to achieve certain political ends.
Machiavelli justified immoral actions in politics, but never refused to admit that they are evil. He operated within the single framework of traditional morality. It became a specific task of his nineteenth-century followers to develop the doctrine of a double ethics: one public and one private, to push Machiavellian realism to even further extremes, and to apply it to international relations.
3. Hobbes: kondisi alami negara, dilemma keamanan
Thomas Hobbes (1588–1683) was part of an intellectual movement whose goal was to free the emerging modern science from the constraints of the classical and scholastic heritage. According to classical political philosophy, on which the idealist perspective is based, human beings can control their desires through reason and can work for the benefit of others, even at the expense of their own benefit. They are thus both rational and moral agents, capable of distinguishing between right and wrong, and of making moral choices.
One of the most widely known Hobbesian concepts is that of the anarchic state of nature, seen as entailing a state of war—and “such a war as is of every man against every man” (XII 8). He derives his notion of the state of war from his views of both human nature and the condition in which individuals exist. Since in the state of nature there is no government and everyone enjoys equal status, every individual has a right to everything; that is, there are no constraints on an individual’s behavior.
- Realisme Klasik
H. J. Morgenthau: politik berakar dari sifat manusia yang selalu mementingkan diri sendiri
The keystone of Morgenthau’s realist theory is the concept of power or “of interest defined in terms of power,” which informs his second principle: the assumption that political leaders “think and act in terms of interest defined as power”
- Realisme dan Keamanan Internasional => melihat bagaimana suatu negara berupaya untuk menghindarkan diri dari ancaman
Sehingga pada akhirnya melahirkan Konsep Deterrence, Defense, dan Kepentingan Nasional
Tulisan ini adalah sebuah review dari materi yang pernah disampaikan dalam kelas oleh dosen pengampu mata kuliah Studi Keamanan Internasional, Hafid Adim Pradana.