Liberalisme dalam HI
- Dasar Pemikiran
1. Locke : Negara-negara muncul untuk menjamin warga negara
Locke believed that people had natural rights to “life, liberty, and property”, and that the role of government was to preserve these rights. If a government does not preserve these rights, then the people have a right to change their government.
A liberal government’s power is limited and justified by the solemn pledge to:
a. treat individuals with respect,
b. pass laws that more effectively guarantee individual freedom and liberty, and
c. avoid unreasonably infringing upon these liberties.
A liberal government is one whose authority is justified by its respect for human rights. Liberal democracies rely heavily on majority rule through elections and legislative decisions, but they also limit majorities by protecting individual and minority rights.
2. J. Bentham : Hukum internasional berada dalam kepentingan nasional negara-negara konstitusional
The idea of developing international law through the restatement of existing rules or through the formulation of new rules is not of recent origin. In the last quarter of the eighteenth century Jeremy Bentham proposed a codification of the whole of international law, though in a utopian spirit.
3. Kant : Dunia yang terdiri dari negara-negara konstitusional pada akhirnya dapat membentuk perdamaian abadi
Liberal theorists attempt to explain how peace and cooperation are possible. German philosopher Immanuel Kant gave three answers 200 years ago:
a) states could develop the organizations and rules to facilitate cooperation, specifically by forming a world federation resembling today’s United Nations,
b) peace depends on the internal character of governments, specifically the republics, with a legislative branch that can hold a monarch in check, will be more peaceful than autocracies, and
c) trade increases wealth, cooperation, and global well-being and therefore conflict is less likely since governments will not want to disrupt any process that adds to the wealth of their state.
- Liberalisme Klasik/Utopian
Classical liberalism is the primary ideology behind politics in the United States. Both modern American liberalism and conservatism are branches of classical liberalism, as they both seek to promote individual freedom, though in different ways.
A political belief in which primary emphasis is placed on securing the freedom of the individual by limiting the power of the state. In its economic form, it advocates a respect for private property and free markets.
1. Normatif: berfokus pada apa yang seharusnya dilakukan
2. Woodrow Wilson: negara-negara perlu membentuk institusi internasional untuk menciptakan perdamaian antar sesamanya
- Liberalisme pasca 1950an
Empiris; berupaya menjelaskan fakta yang terjadi, bukan normatif
1. Liberalisme Sosiologis: hubungan internasional bukan hanya hubungan antar-negara, akan tetapi transnasional
Sociological Liberalism argues that IR is not only about state to state relations but is also about transnational relations, i.e., relations between people, groups, and organizations belonging to different countries. This emphasis on society has led some theorists to identify liberal thought by the term “pluralism.” In focusing on transnational relations, sociological liberals return to an old theme in liberal thinking: the notion that relations between people are more cooperative and supportive than are relations between national governments. Many sociological liberals hold the idea that transnational relations between people from different countries help create new forms of human society which exist alongside or even in competition with the nation-state.
2. Liberalisme Interdepedensi: pembagian tenaga kerja yang tinggi dalam perekonomian internasional meningkatkan interdependensi antar-negara
The high division of labour in the international economy increases interdependence between states, and that discourages and reduces violent conflict. Remember how Waltz’s argument contrasted the functional differentiation of hierarchy, with the same undifferentiated actions for anarchical systems. Globalisation brings, economic at least, differentiation.
3. Liberalisme Institusional: institusi internasional menolong memajukan kerjasama diantara negara
Institutional liberalism builds on this beginning by arguing that it is possible for positive-sum games to exist in the world of international politics: that is, if states work together, they can both benefit from the process and, therefore, it makes sense for cooperation to spread in as many areas as possible.
4. Liberal Republikan: negara-negara demokrasi liberal bersifat lebih damai dan patuh pada hukum. Negara-negara demokrasi tidak berperang dengan negara demokrasi lainnya
Republican liberalism is an international relations theory which claims that liberal democracies are more peaceful than other states. This is explained as a result of the existence of similar domestic political cultures, common moral values, economic cooperation and interdependence.
- Liberalisme dan Keamanan Internasional
Melihat bagaimana dan mengapa negara-negara berupaya menciptakan kondisi damai
1. Konsep Common Security: upaya menghindari terjadinya perang melalui pembentukan institusi yang interdependensi. Ex: ASC (ASEAN Security Community)
2. Konsep Cooperative Security: pengembangan kebiasaan untuk berdialog dan bekerjasama antara negara maupun non-state. Ex: ASEM (ASEAN-Eropa Meeting)
3. Teori Interdependensi Kompleks: hubungan internasional bukan hanya hubungan antara pemimpin negara, tetapi juga antara individu dan juga kelompok di luar negara. Adanya hubungan yang kompleks tersebut membuat instrumen militer dipandang sebagai suatu hal yang kurang bermanfaat karena negara-negara lebih hirau pada upaya meningkatkan kesejahteraan. Ex: Individu-Individu, Individu-State, State-State, State-NonState, dan NonState-NonState
Tulisan ini adalah sebuah review dari materi yang pernah disampaikan dalam kelas oleh dosen pengampu mata kuliah Studi Keamanan Internasional, Hafid Adim Pradana.
- In his Principles of International Law (written in the period 1786-1789), Bentham envisaged that an international code, which should be based on a detailed application of his principle of utility to the relations between nations, would not fail to provide a scheme for an everlasting peace. However, he made little effort to base his plans for such a code upon the existing law of nations. In http://legal.un.org/ilc/ilcintro.htm#_ftn1
- Jackson, Robert H. and Georg Sorensen. Introduction to International Relations: Theories and Approaches. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007; Rosenau, James N. The Dramas of Political Life: An Introduction to the Problems of Governance. North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press, 1980. In http://libguides.usc.edu/content.php?pid=22394&sid=726642
- Jackson, Robert and Georg Sorensen (2006), Introduction to International Relations:theories and approaches, Oxford, OUP, 3ed, p111. In http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republican_liberalism