Partai Politik Amerika Serikat

By : Muhammad Choirul RosiqinInternational Relations Student @University of Muhammadiyah Malang

Sejarah perkembangan partai politik di Amerika Serikat, dibagi menjadi beberapa periode: The First Political Parties: Federalists and Anti-Federalists, The Development of Political Parties: 1800-1824, Jacksonian Democrats: 1824-1860 dan The Republicans, dan The Modern Era of Political Parties.

julyfour_wavera. The First Political Parties: Federalists and Anti-Federalists
Konstitusi Amerika dibuat pada tahun 1787 dan disepakati untuk diratifikasi oleh Negara pada tahun 1788. Para pendukung adanya ratifikasi Konstitusi disebut Federalists, dan pihak yang menolak disebut Anti-Federalists (the Democratic-Republican). The Anti-Federalist menolak pemerintahan baru yang terpusat, dan melihat Konstitusi sebagai ancaman kebebasan individu (yg dipimpin oleh James Madison dan Thomas Jefferson). Alexander Hamilton, sekretaris perbendaharaan President George Washington, menjadi pemimpin Partai Federalist. Perhatian utama kebijakannya dan partai Federalis bahwa Pemerintah Federal-lah yg mengatur perekonomian nasional.

b. The Development of Political Parties: 1800-1824
Memuncaknya debat antara Federalis vs Anti-Federalis (Democratic-Republicans), memunculkan kompetisi dalam usaha mengontrol Kongres dan Negara. The Federalists mendominasi hingga1800, dan anti-Federalist mendominasi setelah tahun 1800. The Federalists condong ke arah komunitas bisnis, sedangkan Anti-Federalist didominasi oleh buruh dan petani.

c. Jacksonian Democrats: 1824-1850 and The Republicans
The Democratic-Republican Party terbagi lagi menjadi dua kelompok yang berlawanan pada pemilu 1824. The Democratic Party, disebut Jacksonian Democrats mencalonkan President Andrew Jackson, sedangkan kelompok lain disebut Whigs. The Whigs tidak populer lagi pada tahun 1850an, Saat itulah muncul the Republican Party yang berkembang dengan pesat. Terdiri dari beberapa mantan anggota Partai The Whigs dan aktivis anti perbudakan awal berdirinya di bawah pimpinan Presiden Abraham Lincoln.

d. The Modern Era of Political Parties (Democratics vs Repubicans and The Third Party)
Era modern politik di AS ialah two-party system yang didominasi the Democratic Party dan the Republican Party. Third parties biasanya condong terhadap isu-isu kebijakan yang tidak terlalu diprioritaskan oleh 2 partai mayoritas (Republic dn Democrats). Contoh beberapa third Parties anatara lain: Bull-Moose party (Theodore Rosevelt), American Independent party (George Wallace), Green party, Libertarian party, Etc. Partai ketiga ini senantiasa muncul dari waktu ke waktu. Salah satu jenis partai ketiga dibentuk karena adanya single issue parties yang tidak mendapat platform dalam dua partai besar. Jenis lainnya adalah splinter parties, yakni partai yang muncul dari partai besar. Jenis partai ini selalu muncul meskipun tidak pernah mengalahkan dua partai besar AS.
Adapun struktur partai politik di AS: National Committees, Leadership, National Conventions, States and Localities, and informal groups.

Reference:


  1. Directory of U.S. Political Parties, http://www.politics1.com/parties.htm
  2. The History of Political Parties, http://americanhistory.about.com/od/politicalparties/
  3. Political parties in the United States, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_parties_in_the_United_States
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About Muhammad Choirul Rosiqin

I was born in Eastern Probolinggo, East Java, in 1994. I'm student of International Relations @University of Muhammadiyah Malang
This entry was posted in HI Kawasan AS. Bookmark the permalink.

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